Patterns of Respiratory Viral Replication
Virus may reach the respiratory tract by several different routes, including nose-hand-nose transmission and aerosol transmission; relative temperature and humidity, as well as crowding and exposure, influence the seasonality of may of the respiratory viruses.
As a primary barrier to infection with epithelial and mucosal surfaces, the respiratory tract is a primary site of viral replication for a large number of viruses. The categories below illustrate why more than a common cold, the flu, or even coronaviruses such as COVID-19 may be considered and tested during workup.
- Acute infection with replication confined to the mucosal surface; Coronavirus COVID-19 falls into this category.
⁃Paramyxoviruses (Parainfluenza 1,2,3; Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RSV); Orthomyxofviruses (Influenza [Flu] A, B, C); Coronaviruses; Picornaviruses (Rhinoviruses); Herpesvirus (Herpes Simplex, HSV)
- Persistent replication on the mucosal surface
⁃Herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr Virus, EBV); Adenoviruses; Papillomavirus
- Systemic replication after primary replication on the mucosal surface.
⁃Paramyxoviruses (Measles; Mumps); Herpesviruses (Varicella, HHV-3; Sixth Disease, HHV-6; Cytomegalovirus, CMV); Togaviruses (Rubella); Bunyaviruses; Arenaviruses; Parvovirus; Picornavirus (Poliovirus); Poxviruses; Reoviruses
Epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses respond by producing a mediator, interleukin-6 (IL-6); these levels increase significantly between 48 and 72 hours of infection.
Forms can be completed online through the patient portal or you can print them from our website and bring them with you to your appointment.